UNCG Campus Weekly

Campus Weekly is published each Wednesday when classes are in session. In the summer, it is published biweekly.

Dr. Tsz-Ki Tsui

Dr. Tsz-Ki Tsui (Biology) received new funding from  Clemson University for the project “Storage, Reactivity, and Bioavailability of Mercury in Managed Forests – Balancing Mercury Toxicity and Wildfire Risks through Effective Fuel Reduction Techniques.”

This project is supported by funds from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA).

The abstract notes that prescribed burning and mechanical thinning are essential forest management practices in the Southeastern U.S., having many beneficial objectives including reduction in the susceptibility of forests to both southern pine beetle attack and wildfires. The four-year project will involve controlled field studies, laboratory studies, and watershed monitoring study to evaluate prescribed burning and mechanical thinning practices, roles of OM/DOM, formation of black carbon, and landscape processes on the transport of different forms of Hg via catchments and downstream Hg transformation mainly microbial methylation. Forest floor sample materials will be collected from experimental plots with different burning schedules and frequency and will be incubated under field conditions. Forest floor materials under different practices will be further tested for their propensities in leaching Hg and further methylation. An unmanaged and a managed 1st order watershed at three locations in North Carolina and South Carolina will be used to evaluate the landscape processes on the exports of Hg. With the results of the control study and field investigation, a box model describing production of methylmercury, toxic form of mercury, in forested ecosystems under different forest management practices will be developed.

Dr. Holly Sienkiewicz

Dr. Holly Sienkiewicz (Center for New North Carolinians) received new funding from the New Arrivals Institute for the project “Refugee After School Program.” The abstract notes that many newly arrived refugee children need additional support and tutoring to achieve success in school. They also need the opportunity to experience activities that they might not otherwise get to experience such as Girl Scouts, sports activities and field trips. Adult refugees need help with employment assistance and English as a Second or Other Language (ESOL).

The project’s objective is to prepare refugee children for success in school and adults for the workforce. An after-school tutoring program, social enrichment activities, and ESOL and employment readiness will be provided at two CNNC community centers that provide services to refugees.


Dr. Laurie Kennedy-Malone

Dr. Laurie Kennedy-Malone (Family and Community Nursing) received a continuation of funding from the DHHS Health Resources and Services Administration for the project “Advanced Nursing Education Workforce: Academic Practice Partnerships Today for Competent Practitioners Tomorrow.” Dr. Karen Amirehshani and Dr. Kristin Curcio are co-principal investigators on the project.

The project will enhance academic practice partnerships for NPs students and graduates providing care to rural and medically underserved persons.

Dr. Arthur D. Anastopoulos

Dr. Arthur D. Anastopoulos (Human Development and Family Studies) received a continuation of funding from the U.S. Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences for the project “Improving the Educational and Social-Emotional Functioning of College Students with ADHD.”  The goal of this study is to conduct a multi-site randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of ACCESS – Accessing Campus Connections and Empowering Student Success – a cognitive-behavioral treatment program for college students with ADHD that includes group therapy and individual mentoring services delivered across two consecutive semesters. A total of 250 college students with well-defined ADHD from UNCG and its collaborating institution, Virginia Commonwealth University, have thus far participated in the study. The goals for the upcoming continuation funding year are to finish collecting outcome data and to begin conducting planned statistical analyses to assess the therapeutic benefits of ACCESS.

Dr. Perry Flynn

Dr. Perry Flynn (Communication Sciences and Disorders) received new funding from Phoenix Academy for the  “Speech Language Pathology Service Contract with Phoenix Academy.”

The agreement will provide speech and language therapy services to children in the Phoenix Academy who qualify. The Speech/Language Pathologists at Phoenix Academy will:

  1.  Report to the Principal or Executive Director of the Phoenix Academy;
  2.  Conduct Speech Language Evaluations as appropriate;
  3.  Schedule and hold IEP conferences with SLI primary and related service eligible students;
  4.  Provide Speech-Language intervention for appropriately identified (and unidentified) students as appropriate through classroom and pull out  models of intervention;
  5.  Maintain Exceptional Children’s records in compliance with state of NC and federal regulations.

Dr. Sebastian Pauli

Dr. Sebastian Pauli (Mathematics and Statistics) received a continuation of funding from the National Science Foundation for the project “UNCG Summer School in Computational Number Theory.”

The project will complement traditional training that graduate students receive by exposing them to a constructive and computational approach to many objects in number theory. The project will also further students’ knowledge and give them additional tools for research, as well as provide students the opportunity to work closely with experts in the field.

The abstract notes that the project helps create research communities and lay the foundation for future collaboration by allowing graduate students to meet and work with other students in their field. The abstract also notes that the project broadens underrepresented groups in computational mathematics. 

Dr. Heidi Krowchuk

Photo of Dr. Heidi Krowchuk.Dr. Heidi Krowchuk (School of Nursing) received new funding from the DHHS Health Resources and Services Administration for the project “Nurse Anesthetist Traineeship (NAT) Program 2018-2019.”

The project will provide monetary educational support to prepare a workforce of highly competent Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs) who can provide evidence-based anesthesia care and help combat the opioid abuse epidemic among the medically underserved populations in North Carolina.

Callie Coward

Callie CowardCallie Coward has been awarded the University Libraries’ Staff Service Award for 2018.

The award, which was established in 1997 upon the retirement of Martha Ransley, former Head of the Circulation department in Jackson Library, was created to recognize and reward members of the Library Staff who provide outstanding leadership and service in furthering the accomplishment of the mission of University Libraries.

Coward, who has more than eight years of work experience in Jackson Library as the Special Collections Cataloging and Digital Projects Library Technician in the Technical Services department, has been an integral member of the team supporting NC DOCKS, as well as an important contributor to metadata cleanup projects from a cataloging perspective.

As part of the nomination process to receive the award, Coward’s colleagues commented on her level of expertise and commitment to collaborative projects, stating that a positive attitude and an amazing energy are some of her most redeeming qualities. Coward will receive a monetary award and have her name engraved on the University Libraries Staff Service Award plaque.

Coward received her Bachelor of Arts degree in Sociology with a concentration in Criminal Justice from UNC Greensboro in 2010, as well as her Master’s in Library and Information Studies from UNC Greensboro in 2018.

By Hollie Stevenson-Parrish

Andrew Cagle

Andrew CagleAndrew Cagle (Chancellor’s Office) graduated from North Carolina’s premier leadership engagement program, Leadership North Carolina, May 10. LNC’s mission is to inform, develop and engage committed leaders by broadening their understanding of and involvement in issues and opportunities facing North Carolina. Cagle joins 54 other leaders across the state in graduating from this prestigious program.

Selected for his deep commitment to the state, Cagle was given the opportunity to learn more about North Carolina’s strengths and challenges, as well as develop new ways to improve and empower the community. Cagle engaged in key discussions with top North Carolina officials, attended field trips across the state and participated in experiential learning activities. Sessions focused on economic development, education, environment, government, and health and human services.

Cagle is director of state and external affairs at UNCG.

Karen DeNaples

Karen DeNaplesKaren DeNaples (LLC) has received the George W. Veditz ASL Leadership Award, named for an ASL pioneer.  This award is given in recognition of an NC ASLTA member’s significant contribution to the field of ASL teaching.

Megan Cayton

Megan Cayton (Health and Human Sciences) will be receiving a Certificate of Merit for best new advisor at the NACADA (National Academic Advising Association) Region 3 Conference in Charleston, SC, this week.

The honor is “Excellence in Advising – New Advisor Certificate of Merit.” Details are here.


Bill Johnson

Bill Johnson Jr. (HHS) has been awarded the Certificate of Merit of the Outstanding Advising Program Award by NACADA, The Global Community for Academic Advising.

Established in 1983, the NACADA Annual Awards Program for Academic Advising honors individuals and institutions making significant contributions to the improvement of academic advising. NACADA is a representative and advocate of academic advising and those providing that service to higher education.

Additionally, Johnson has been asked to serve as a fellow for the Direct Selling Education Foundation. (More information is in the newsletter http://dsef.org/dsef-welcomes-newest-fellows/

Johnson is Student Success Navigator/Instructor and Life Design Catalyst Coach and Facilitator in HHS.

Jay McCloy

Jay McCloy (Assistant Director of Health and Performance) is one of the 2018 award winners of the Drug Free Sport Continuing Education Awards. The 2018 Athletic Trainer Continuing Education Awards honor certified athletic trainers on the front lines of drug abuse, doping, and wellness education. 

Dr. Levi Baker

Dr. Levi Baker (Psychology) has been named associate editor of the academic journal Personal Relationships. An assistant professor, Baker studies social psychology, particularly the psychology of close relationships. In addition to teaching classes, he runs the Close Relationship Lab, which studies problem solving in close relationships. His work has been published in a number of journals, including Journal of Family Psychology, Journal of Experimental Psychology and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Dr. Janet Boseovski

Dr. Janet Boseovski (Psychology) has published a popular press article in “The Conversation.” The article summarizes over a decade of her research on children’s over-optimism and it has been republished in Newsweek, The Chicago Tribune, and The Los Angeles Times. See this link.


Sheryl Oring

Sheryl Oring (Art) will have a chapter in a book released this month that profiles the work done in her Fall 2015 “Introduction to Socially Engaged Art” class taught in the Lloyd International Honors College. The book, “Art as Social Action: An Introduction to the Principles and Practices of Teaching Social Practice Art,” is being published by Allworth Press.

Dr. Daniel Herr

Lead PI Dr. Daniel Herr (Joint School for Nanoscience and Nanoengineering) with PIs Dr. Matina Kalcounis-Ruppell (Biology) and Dr. Lee Phillips (Undergraduate Research, Scholarship and Creativity Office) received new funding from the National Institutes of Health for the project “UNC Greensboro MARC USTAR Engage, Sustain, and Prepare.” The UNCG MARC U-STAR will be a comprehensive undergraduate training program addressing the need to increase the diversity of students pursuing graduate studies in biomedical research and careers in the NIH-funded research workforce. The long-term goal is to increase the number of UNCG students from underrepresented (UR) and/or disadvantaged backgrounds successfully completing graduate training in biomedical or behavioral health sciences.  To reach this goal the UNCG MARC U-STAR program will engage these fellows in a curriculum organized around enhancing comprehension of the scientific method, developing basic laboratory and evaluation skills, and the inclusion of modern genomic/evolutionary approaches and techniques in biomedical research. Students will also be required to conduct substantive independent research projects that include two summer research experiences, one at UNCG and one at an additional institution.

Dr. Blair Wisco

Dr. Blair Wisco (Psychology) received $436,500 in new funding from the National Institutes of Health for the project “Ambulatory Physiological Assessment of Postraumatic Stress Disorder.” The abstracts states: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects 6.5 percent of the U.S. population, or about 21 million Americans, and tends to be chronic and impairing, representing a major public health problem. The Institute of Medicine identified exposure therapy as the front-line treatment, yet 40 percent of individuals still meet PTSD criteria following exposure therapy, indicating a need for more effective treatments. To date, PTSD treatment research has been constrained by the lack of objective measures of the theorized mechanism of action: extinction of conditioned fear to trauma cues. New assessment tools are necessary to measure this treatment target.  

Conditioned fear to trauma cues is typically measured by self-report, but the UNCG team has found that self-report and physiological markers of fear responding differentially predict treatment outcome. Skin conductance (SC) is a commonly used physiological marker of fear (sympathetic arousal), but SC is not a reliable marker for a substantial minority of individuals; there is a need for new markers.

Two cardiovascular measures are particularly promising: a specific marker of sympathetic arousal (pre-ejection period, PEP), and a marker of parasympathetic withdrawal (respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA). The gold-standard assessment tool to measure conditioned fear in PTSD is script-driven imagery, but script-driven imagery only presents one trauma cue in one context, limiting its clinical relevance. Ambulatory physiological assessment, which measures physiological responses to events in participants’ daily lives, can measure fear responding to multiple trauma cues across different contexts, but it has yet to be tested in individuals with PTSD.  The specific aims of this R15 proposal are 1) to test PEP and RSA as markers of conditioned fear to trauma cues using gold-standard script-driven imagery, and 2) to validate ambulatory physiological assessment as an objective method of measuring fear responding to trauma cues in the daily lives of individuals with PTSD.

This project represents a significant advance over existing research, including 1) assessment of new physiological markers of fear responding, 2) assessment in real-world environments, and 3) examination of different trauma cues in different contexts. This project is innovative because it will examine two novel markers of fear responding to trauma cues (PEP and RSA), and because it will test ambulatory physiological assessment as a new technique to measure trauma reactivity in PTSD. 

Dr. Tara T. Green

Dr. Tara T. Green (African American & African Diaspora Studies) was presented with the inaugural Langston Hughes Society President’s Award for being a “leader, scholar, and keeper of the Langston Hughes Tradition” at the their annual luncheon, April 5, 2018. Green served as president of the organization for three years and spearheaded the successful search for the current Langston Hughes Review.

Dr. Martin Halbert

Dr. Martin Halbert (University Libraries) received new funding from the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) for the “Library Diversity Institutes Pilot Project.” The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG, project lead), in collaboration with the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) Diversity Alliance propose a two-year project to pilot a national Library Diversity Institute program that will address the needs of professionally underrepresented racial and ethnic groups and broadly advance diversity in U.S. academic libraries.  The Library Diversity Institutes (LDI) pilot project will conduct two institutes for incoming ACRL diversity residents, as well as an ACRL diversity pre-conference for all interested parties. With guidance from a national committee of residency coordinators and experts on diversity issues, the project will design a program and curriculum to orient diversity residents to maximize their experiences as residents in the diverse organizations that make up the ACRL Diversity Alliance, as well as enabling a national network of colleagues comprising the relevant cohort of librarian residents for the institute year in which they participate.  This pilot program will study and document the needs of new diversity residents who attend the institute, identify key elements that will accelerate success for these new librarians, and analyze options for long-term continuance and sustainability of this institute and workshop program. This project will take the form of a two-year continuing education project grant in the IMLS category of community anchors.

Halbert is dean of University Libraries.


Dr. Jay Poole

Dr. Jay Poole (Social Work) received new funding from Cone Health Foundation for the project “College Park Clinic.” The College Park Clinic will provide harm reduction services to those who are using opiates and will include screening, assessment, brief intervention, referral, syringe exchange, and education. These services represent a community-based collaborative effort between GCSTOP, The Congregational Nursing Program, and The Congregational Social Work Education Initiative, along with a network of providers in the community.  The UNCG Department of Social Work, Cone Health Systems, and The Center for Housing and Community Studies at UNCG are administrative partners in this project.

Michael Frierson

Michael Frierson (Media Studies) recently published “Film and Video Editing Theory: How Editing Creates Meaning.” The book distills and illustrates the thinking of a diverse group of filmmakers and theorists who have written about how editing constructs filmic time/space, and how editing signifies in other ways.

See more at https://www.routledge.com/Film-and-Video-Editing-Theory-How-Editing-Creates-Meaning/Frierson/p/book/9781138202078

Dr. Sarah Koerner

Dr. Sarah Koerner (Biology) received new funding of $1,186,000 from the US Department of Agriculture for the project “Identifying Mechanisms of Rangeland Drought Resilience: Management Strategies for Sustainable Ecosystem Health.”

Dr. Erick Byrd

Dr. Erick Byrd (Marketing, Entrepreneurship, Hospitality and Tourism) received new funding from the High Point Convention and Visitors Bureau for the project “High Point Furniture Attendance Shopping Tracker.”

High Point, NC, is home to more than 50 furniture stores and outlets that are open to the public, the abstract notes. With High Point’s reputation as a home furnishings mecca (with stores, manufactures, designers and High Point Market) visitors from around the world visit the area to shop. Therefore, furniture shoppers are an important market for retail as well as the areas tourism and hospitality industries.

As an important market segment to High Point, there is a need to accurately track the volume of shoppers that visit the High Point area for planning and marketing purposes. While individual stores may track shoppers for their store, there needs to be a measure of the total traffic for planning, development, and marketing purposes.  The proposed research study and tool will help in capturing these numbers, as well as, develop a profile of the visitors that come to the High Point area.

Dr. Shan Suthaharan

Photo of Dr. Shan Suthaharan.Dr. Shan Suthaharan (Computer Science) has been named a Distinguished Speaker of the ACM (Association for Computer Machinery). ACM stated in its award letter that “ACM’s Distinguished Speaker Program (DSP) is a highly visible way that ACM, through the appointment of leading researchers, engages with emerging professionals, students and, in some cases, the public on a range of topics in computing.”

Suthaharan’s research in data science, big data, and machine learning, and his recent book entitled “Machine Learning Models and Algorithms for Big Data Classification: Thinking with Examples for Effective Learning” – published by Springer – made significant contributions to the emerging interdisciplinary field of data science. His course – CSC 510 – Big Data and Machine Learning – at UNCG has been listed as a full semester course with the courses from Stanford, Purdue, MIT, and UC-Berkeley at http:/www.soihub.org/resources/learning-hub-main/. He is currently writing another book on data science – a highly suitable textbook for emerging data analysts and data scientists. Dr. Suthaharan’s ACM’s Distinguished Speaker profile can be found at: https://speakers.acm.org/speakers/suthaharan_9163.

Dr. Alwin Wagener

Dr. Alwin Wagener (Counseling and Educational Development) received new funding from the DreamScience Foundation for the project “A New Lens on Dreams and Nightmares: Differences in Dreams and Nightmares in Relation to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Insomnia among Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence.”

The objective of this study is to understand whether the occurrence of repeating nightmares, non-repeating nightmares, and dreams among survivors of intimate partner violence is consistent with a view that these types of dream experiences are differentially related to PTSD and Insomnia as suggested by the AMPHAC/AND Neurocognitive Model and the Contemporary Theory of Dreaming.

Dr. Tara T. Green

Dr. Tara T. Green (African American and African Diaspora Studies) has been appointed to serve as co-editor of Mercer University Press’ Voices of the African Diaspora Studies Book Series.

The Voices of the African Diaspora Studies series encompasses work by scholars of all disciplines who are publishing in the areas of Africa and the diaspora. Established nearly two decades ago by Chester Fontenot Jr., a pioneering figure in the field of Africana Studies and Chair of Mercer University’s Africana Studies Program, the series has published studies on Black experiences and their intersection with race, class, citizenship rights, religion, and/or the U.S. South. . The series directors especially encourage submission of manuscripts that have an interdisciplinary approach. Green is excited to work with new and emerging scholars as well as advanced scholars.

Dr. Bob Griffiths

A book by Dr. Bob Griffiths (Political Science), “U.S. Security Cooperation with Africa: Political and Policy Challenges,” has been re-released in paperback by Routledge through their Paperback Direct Program. The program makes selected hardback research publishing available to a wider audience.

Austin McKim

Austin McKim (New Student Transitions & First Year Experience) was selected as one of two coordinators for the state of North Carolina as part of NODA (National Association for Orientation, Transition, and Retention) Region VI. In this role, he’s tasked with overseeing the professional development and connection of over 500 professionals and student leaders working in orientation, transition, and retention in the state of NC. McKim will work with the national association to host webinars and a drive-in conference at UNCG. Also a part of the role of state coordinator is serving as a member of the Region VI leadership team to to develop initiatives to best serve students and staff across the states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee.

McKim is assistant director, New Student Transitions & First Year Experience.

Angela Boseman

Angela Boseman has joined the Office of Sponsored Programs as a Grants Specialist. Her first day was Monday, April 9, 2018.  She fills a position formerly held by Darneshia Blackmon. Boseman has both pre-award and post-award experience in research administration.  She comes to us from Mount St. Mary’s University where she was the University Grants Manager as well as an Adjunct Faculty. Prior to that, she worked in the Louisiana State University Health Science Center (School of Medicine) and the University of Maryland at both the College Park and Baltimore campuses. Angela has an MBA and an MS in Healthcare Administration. She also holds a Master’s Certificate in Intellectual Property.

Dr. Thomas Jackson

Photo of Dr. Thomas JacksonDr. Thomas Jackson (History) appeared on BackStory Radio on March 30. In the episode, Jackson reflected on Martin Luther King, Jr.’s plans for the Poor People’s Campaign, the fierce reaction, and the ideological contest over his legacy. On the program, Jackson, along with guest historians Jeanne Theoharis, Clayborne Carson, Michael Honey and Jason Sokol, considered if Americans have lost sight of the real MLK.

Dr. Jackson has appeared in many television and radio shows related to MLK and civil rights, and has a book titled “From Civil Rights to Human Rights: Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Struggle for Economic Justice.” The book received the 2007 Liberty Legacy Foundation Award of the Organization of American Historians.

The episode can be found here.

Dr. Harriette Bailey

Dr. Harriette Bailey (Human Development and Family Studies) received new funding from the Partnership for Children for the project “UNCG Partnership.”

The Education, Quality Improvement, and Professional Development (EQuIPD) project addresses a critical need in Guilford County – the improvement of quality in community childcare settings. EQuIPD includes five interconnected activities. The proposal addresses activities for family childcare homes and centers including professional development, program enhancement through individual consultation, community learning sessions and workforce retention strategies including compensation. UNCG, through the Department of Human Development and Family Studies (where the Birth through Kindergarten Teaching Licensure program is housed) will provide project leadership through advising and consultation. The project will be conducted in Guilford County early care and education programs.

Dr. Nadja Cech

Dr. Nadja Cech (Chemistry and Biochemistry) received continuation of funding from the National Institutes of Health for the project “Inhibition of spreading factors with natural products: A new anti-virulence approach against pathogenic bacteria.”

Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of skin and soft tissue infections, and the use of antibiotics to treat these infections has led to drug resistance. According to the CDC, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) caused an estimated 80,000 infections and over 11,000 deaths in the US in 2011. Additionally, treating MRSA infections costs twice as much as infections that are susceptible to antibiotics. Since 2009, the FDA has approved only two new antibiotics, which is due in part to the drug pipeline being depleted of potential treatments as pharmaceutical companies shift their focus to more profitable research areas.  New therapeutic strategies against MRSA and other resistant bacteria are greatly needed. In developing of these strategies, it is critically important to consider ways to break the cycle of resistance development.

One promising therapeutic approach against drug-resistant pathogens is to target bacterial virulence. The concept behind anti-virulence approaches is to inhibit non-essential pathways that contribute to pathogenicity, thereby facilitating clearance of the infection without pressuring the pathogen to become resistant. With this project, they plan to develop an anti-virulence strategy against MRSA that targets hyaluronidase. Hyaluronidase is an enzyme secreted by numerous bacterial pathogens, and is referred to as a “spreading factor” because of its critical role in the bacterial growth and penetration. Currently, there are no known inhibitors of the Staphylococcus aureus hyaluronidase enzyme. Her laboratory has recently identified several natural product extracts with promising anti-hyaluronidase activity.  The goals of this project are (1) to identify compounds from these extracts that singularly or synergistically inhibit hyaluronidase secreted by S. aureus, and (2) to use hyaluronidase inhibition as a model system to develop new strategies to identify bioactive natural products.

Michael Parker

Photo of Michael ParkerMichael Parker (English) had two stories from his recent collection, “Everything, Then and Since” selected by Aimee Bender for the anthology “Best Small Fictions 2018,” to be released by Braddock Avenue Books this fall. The 53 stories in the anthology were selected from over 1,000 nominations internationally.

Parker is the author of six novels and three collections of short stories. He has received fellowships from the North Carolina Arts Council and the National Endowment for the Arts, as well as the Hobson Award for Arts and Letters and the North Carolina Award for Literature. His work has been anthologized in the Pushcart, New Stories from the South and O. Henry Prize Stories anthologies.

Dr. Olav Rueppell

Dr. Olav Rueppell (Biology) received additional funding from the Department of Defense DA Army Research Office for the project “Studies of the Plasticity of Stress Defense Induction in the Social Honeybee Model.”  

The western honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) represents one of the most important invertebrate research models in the post-genomic era. In addition to their importance in basic research, honey bees have received scientific attention because they are economically and ecologically important pollinators. The number of managed honey bee hives shows a long-term decline over the past 60 years. The main factors that are considered for their negative effects on honey bee health are pathogens, pesticides, nutrition and general management stress. Many abiotic and biotic factors may stress individuals at lower levels, creating sublethal adverse effects. However, many stressors can have beneficial effects in a variety of organisms and contexts when the organisms are exposed to low levels.

The central hypothesis of the proposed research project is that the induction of defense mechanisms varies among essential and non-essential components of biological systems. They will address this hypothesis by testing the prediction that honey bee colony members show different degrees of inducible stress defenses according to their importance to their colony. The project will consist of the following five specific aims: 1) Inducing stress defense mechanisms in honey bees; 2) Investigation of caste differences in stress defense induction; 3) Investigation of within-caste differences in stress defense induction; 4) Characterization of the systemic response of stress defense induction; and 5) Measuring the cost of stress defense induction as physiological effects. Together, these aims will lead to a comprehensive understanding of stress induction in its relation to social evolution in honey bees with general implications for understanding the evolution of stress responses and for maintaining pollinator health.